By Maribel Fierro
Covers the 10th-century founding father of the good Cordova Caliphate.
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Extra resources for Abd al-Rahman (Makers of the Muslim World)
When the caliph accepted these conditions of the Toledans, the gates of the town were opened for him. A citadel was built inside Toledo for the Umayyad representative and his troops, surrounded by high walls that isolated it from the rest of the town. The defeated were thus granted a wide space of autonomy, and the caliph was forced to accommodate himself to local power. In spite of its shortcomings from the point of view of caliphal authority, or perhaps because of them, the end of the Toledan rebellion was celebrated in '1l" 62 'ABD AL-RAHMAN III Cordoba with a lavish banquet offered by the caliph to all those who had taken part in the conquest, a celebration that coincided with the circumcision of some of his sons.
In 930, a certain degree of unification among the different Castilian counts was achieved, a process of political convergence that is usually rendered as the birth of a new Christian polity, the county of Castille. Around that time, Simancas, the town attacked in 939, became a bishopric. Christian expansion was checked after the 930s, owing both to Christian internal conflicts and to greater Muslim military investment. Frontal encounters with Christian armies seem to have been avoided and continuous harassment from different directions favored.
By contrast, 'Abbasid inability to cater for the religious and political needs of the Islamic community was a good reason for the Umayyads to claim the Sunni caliphate. There were also internal circumstances behind the caliphal proclamation. When it took place in 929, 'Abd aI-Rahman III had not yet achieved effective control of all Andalusi territory. In fact, he would spend the following years trying to bring the frontier regions under his rule. What he had achieved was the defeat of the rebels in the central lands of al-Andalus, especially the defeat of the Hafsunids.