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Explain the pH scale. State the normal pH ranges of body fluids. Explain how a buffer system limits great changes in pH. Describe the functions of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Describe the functions of true fats, phospholipids, and steroids. Describe the functions of proteins, and explain how enzymes function as catalysts. Describe the functions of DNA, RNA, and ATP. 02Scanlon(p3)-ch02 8/17/06 10:42 AM Page 23 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Some Basic Chemistry New Terminology Related Clinical Terminology Acid (ASS-sid) Amino acid (ah-MEE-noh ASS-sid) Atom (A-tum) Base (BAYSE) Buffer system (BUFF-er SIS-tem) Carbohydrates (KAR-boh-HIGH-drayts) Catalyst (KAT-ah-list) Cell respiration (SELL RES-pi-RAY-shun) Covalent bond (ko-VAY-lent) Dissociation/ionization (dih-SEW-see-AYshun/EYE-uh-nih-ZAY-shun) Element (EL-uh-ment) Enzyme (EN-zime) Extracellular fluid (EKS-trah-SELL-yoo-ler) Intracellular fluid (IN-trah-SELL-yoo-ler) Ion (EYE-on) Ionic bond (eye-ON-ik) Lipids (LIP-ids) Matter (MAT-ter) Molecule (MAHL-e-kuhl) Nucleic acids (new-KLEE-ik ASS-sids) pH and pH scale (pee-h SKALE) Protein (PROH-teen) Salt (SAWLT) Solvent/solution (SAHL-vent/suh-LOO-shun) Steroid (STEER-oyd) Trace elements (TRAYSE EL-uh-ments) Acidosis (ASS-i-DOH-sis) Atherosclerosis (ATH-er-oh-skle-ROH-sis) Hypoxia (high-POK-see-ah) Saturated fats (SAT-uhr-ay-ted) Unsaturated (un-SAT-uhr-ay-ted) fats Terms that appear in bold type in the chapter text are defined in the glossary, which begins on page 547.

A. Davis. Some Basic Chemistry Table 2–2 TRACE ELEMENTS Element Function Calcium • Provides strength in bones and teeth • Necessary for blood clotting • Necessary for muscle contraction Phosphorus • Provides strength in bones and teeth • Part of DNA, RNA, and ATP • Part of cell membranes Iron • Part of hemoglobin in red blood cells; transports oxygen • Part of myoglobin in muscles; stores oxygen • Necessary for cell respiration Copper • Necessary for cell respiration • Necessary for hemoglobin synthesis Sodium and potassium • Necessary for muscle contraction • Necessary for nerve impulse transmission Sulfur • Part of some proteins such as insulin and keratin Cobalt • Part of vitamin B12 Iodine • Part of thyroid hormones—thyroxine ACIDS, BASES, AND pH An acid may be defined as a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (Hϩ) in a water solution.

When they are present in food or nutritional supplements, we often call them minerals, and examples are iron, cobalt, and zinc. Although they may not be as abundant in the body as are carbon, hydrogen, or oxygen, they are nonetheless essential. Table 2–2 lists some of these trace elements and their functions (see also Box 2–2: Nitric Oxide). 02Scanlon(p3)-ch02 8/17/06 10:42 AM Page 31 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Some Basic Chemistry Table 2–2 TRACE ELEMENTS Element Function Calcium • Provides strength in bones and teeth • Necessary for blood clotting • Necessary for muscle contraction Phosphorus • Provides strength in bones and teeth • Part of DNA, RNA, and ATP • Part of cell membranes Iron • Part of hemoglobin in red blood cells; transports oxygen • Part of myoglobin in muscles; stores oxygen • Necessary for cell respiration Copper • Necessary for cell respiration • Necessary for hemoglobin synthesis Sodium and potassium • Necessary for muscle contraction • Necessary for nerve impulse transmission Sulfur • Part of some proteins such as insulin and keratin Cobalt • Part of vitamin B12 Iodine • Part of thyroid hormones—thyroxine ACIDS, BASES, AND pH An acid may be defined as a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (Hϩ) in a water solution.

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