Download Apatite: Its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and by Duncan McConnell B. S., M. S., Ph.D. (auth.) PDF

By Duncan McConnell B. S., M. S., Ph.D. (auth.)

The coaching of a quantity in this subject used to be undertaken with a few hesitancy on my half as the ramifications of the mineralogy of apatite contain either bio­ logical and actual sciences in very intricate methods. This hesitancy can have arisen partly from the conclusion that substantial ability will be required which will extract the that means from the hundreds of thousands of papers that experience seemed in the earlier two decades; the duty of trying to extract and gather the usable details appeared titanic. tremendously including to the trouble was once the truth that a substantial element of those magazine articles comprise not anything of price and extra confuse a most complicated subject. however, it was once inspiration that a few of my formal schooling within the bio­ logical sciences, which has been significantly prolonged and augmented in past times fifteen years, could be built-in with my extra wide schooling and event in chemistry, crystallography, mineralogy, geology and physics so one can seasoned­ duce anything that may relate to the mineral apatite and its tremendous varied occurences in nature. whilst it appeared necessary to indicate many of the many very important elements within which this data bears on geology, agriculture, chemical engineering, drugs and dentistry.

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Extra resources for Apatite: Its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and Geologic and Biologic Occurrences

Sample text

Parenthetical Roman numerals refer to coordination numbers (CN) and frequently more than one radius will be given ~when the CN is not precisely known for the site under consideration. For example, the four Ca atoms located on the 3-fold axis cannot be said to have the same CN as the other six Ca atoms of the unit cell. In unambiguous cases valence is not discussed nor is a charge necessarily indicated for the cations, so that the symbol for an element is interpreted to mean the atom with its normal charge.

28 A. 07 (VIII) for Eu···. The slightly smaller periodicities for EUlO(P04)G(OH)2 imply that Eu·· has a radius slightly smaller than Sr or that a small number of Na ions may have occupied sites (in addition to larger amounts of Eu) inasmuch as the preparation involved solutions of EuS04 and Na3P04 and both Na and S04 ions can enter the apatite structure without great difficulty. Thus far, the discussion hag been concerned with cations involving coordination numbers of six or greater. A most interesting situation is the substitution of AI for both Ca and P.

4. m or elh by [93] in 1923, by the use of von Laue and rotation photographs, and the essential features of the structure were determined independently by NARAYSZABO [180] and 1\hHMEL [174], both of whom published their results in 1930. Numerous attempts to refine the parameters given in these early investigations have not brought about spectacular improvement inasmuch as these so-called refinements have been performed on unanalyzed crystals. 1; these are generally applicable to both fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite.

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